React Art Zooming and Dragging

React-art is awesome, you can easily embody the same concepts in React and your visualizations magically work.

I personally have not done a ton of visualization, and the little I have done is mostly rendering graphs with D3.

I've been tasked with doing a dive for a difficult visualization. We ran into a scenario where we needed the ability to zoom and drag the canvas. D3 conveniently comes with zoom/drag behaviors. D3 integrates pretty well with react-art for doing a lot of the math/generating paths, however after watching the things immediatley called out that D3 doesn't integrate with react-art are transitions and behaviors (zoom/drag).

So immediately I'm thinking about how to accomplish this. Do I need a global scaler that scales all of my coordinates for zooming? Do I need to manage a coordinate system and adjust all of my coordinates with the dragged X/Y offsets.

I googled around, and a few people recommended using canvasEl.getContext('2d').translate(x,y). I gave this a try with refs, that didn't work.

It did lead me down the right path though. What if I was able to just utilize one global wrapper, and all of my other code could remain unchanged. The great thing about Group is that the coordinate system of the children gets reset, so 0,0 is now the x,y of the Group

Example:

<Group x={100} y={100}>
  <Circle radius={10} stroke="#000" strokeWidth={3} x={20} y={20} />
</Group>

The coordinates of the circle on the whole canvas would actually be 120,120 but because of the group at x = 100, y = 100 we just need to say x = 20, y = 20.

Now that we know that our parent coordinate system effects our child coordinate systems lets prove our final theory that we can have one master parent to control zoom/drag.

Lets start with a base renderer

//Assuming React, and react-art are included
var ZoomDragCircle = React.createClass({
  render: function () {
    return <Surface width={viewportWidth} height={viewportHeight}></Surface>;
  },
});

We have a surface so the next lets get something rendering

var ZoomDragCircle = React.createClass({

    render: function() {
        return (
            <Surface
                width={viewportWidth}
                height={viewportHeight}
            >
                <Circle x={10} y={10} radius={5} fill="#000" />
            </Surface>
        );
    }

})

Lets add in our drag concept.

var ZoomDragCircle = React.createClass({
  getInitialState: function () {
    return {
      x: 0,
      y: 0,
    };
  },
  handleMouseDown: function () {
    this.dragging = true;
  },
  handleMouseUp: function () {
    this.dragging = false;
  },
  render: function () {
    return (
      <div onMouseDown={this.handleMouseDown} onMouseUp={this.handleMouseUp}>
        <Surface width={viewportWidth} height={viewportHeight}>
          <Group x={this.state.x} y={this.state.y}>
            <Circle x={10} y={10} radius={5} fill="#000" />
          </Group>
        </Surface>
      </div>
    );
  },
});

One thing you'll notice here is the wrapping div. The react-art Surface element doesn't have the EventMixin so it will not register mouse events. We could wrap our Group with another Group for dragging/zoom however an outer div is much easier for now.

You also may notice that we have a slight issue. onMouseUp should be globally on the document since the mouseup event will only be fired if the mouseup happens on our wrapping div. For simplicity sake we'll keep it on the div.

So we have a way to toggle whether we are dragging or not, and have the ability to adjust the x,y coords of a parent group. Lets actually implement drag.

var ZoomDragCircle = React.createClass({
  getInitialState: function () {
    return {
      x: 0,
      y: 0,
    };
  },
  componentDidMount: function () {
    document.addEventListener("mousemove", this.handleMouseMove, false);
  },
  componentWillUnmount: function () {
    //Don't forget to unlisten!
    document.removeEventListener("mousemove", this.handleMouseMove, false);
  },
  handleMouseDown: function (e) {
    this.dragging = true;
    //Set coords
    this.coords = {
      x: e.pageX,
      y: e.pageY,
    };
  },
  handleMouseUp: function () {
    this.dragging = false;
    this.coords = {};
  },
  handleMouseMove: function (e) {
    //If we are dragging
    if (this.dragging) {
      e.preventDefault();

      //Get mouse change differential
      var xDiff = this.coords.x - e.pageX,
        yDiff = this.coords.y - e.pageY;

      //Update to our new coordinates
      this.coords.x = e.pageX;
      this.coords.y = e.pageY;
      //Adjust our x,y based upon the x/y diff from before
      var x = this.state.x - xDiff,
        y = this.state.y - yDiff;

      //Re-render
      this.setState(this.state);
    }
  },
  render: function () {
    return (
      <div onMouseDown={this.handleMouseDown} onMouseUp={this.handleMouseUp}>
        <Surface width={viewportWidth} height={viewportHeight}>
          <Group x={this.state.x} y={this.state.y}>
            <Circle x={10} y={10} radius={5} fill="#000" />
          </Group>
        </Surface>
      </div>
    );
  },
});

Now if you spin this up you'll see we can drag around the canvas and our Circle will stay the same place. Lets do zoom now.

To understand what we're about to do the Art library will translate our x,y coords to a matrix that is set on the transform attribute of the svg g element or in the canvas case translated to the appropriate coordinates.

The matrix system can be read about here on . Ultimately it allows us to modify the coordinate system (x,y) and additionally the scale.

Think of scale as a default multiplier times the size of stuff.

So a scale of 1 means if something is a width of 10 then it would still be 10. But If we set our scale to 2 and the same width of 10 then 10*2 = 20. The item would appear larger at 20 pixels.

This is the rough idea behind scale, however we aren't adjusting widths the scale is actually effecting the x,y coordinates you are setting. You can define scaleX and scaleY to be different numbers causing your visual elements to appear blurred/skewed.

var ZoomDragCircle = React.createClass({
  getInitialState: function () {
    return {
      x: 0,
      y: 0,
      scale: 1,
    };
  },
  componentDidMount: function () {
    document.addEventListener("mousemove", this.handleMouseMove, false);
  },
  componentWillUnmount: function () {
    //Don't forget to unlisten!
    document.removeEventListener("mousemove", this.handleMouseMove, false);
  },
  handleMouseDown: function (e) {
    this.dragging = true;
    //Set coords
    this.coords = {
      x: e.pageX,
      y: e.pageY,
    };
  },
  handleMouseUp: function () {
    this.dragging = false;
    this.coords = {};
  },
  handleMouseMove: function (e) {
    //If we are dragging
    if (!this.dragging) {
      return;
    }
    e.preventDefault();

    //Get mouse change differential
    var xDiff = this.coords.x - e.pageX,
      yDiff = this.coords.y - e.pageY;

    //Update to our new coordinates
    this.coords.x = e.pageX;
    this.coords.y = e.pageY;
    //Adjust our x,y based upon the x/y diff from before
    var x = this.state.x - xDiff,
      y = this.state.y - yDiff;

    //Re-render
    this.setState(this.state);
  },
  //So we can handle the mousewheel returning -0 or 0
  isNegative: function (n) {
    return ((n = +n) || 1 / n) < 0;
  },
  handleMouseWheel: function (e) {
    var ZOOM_STEP = 0.03;

    //require the shift key to be pressed to scroll
    if (!e.shiftKey) {
      return;
    }
    e.preventDefault();
    var direction =
      this.isNegative(e.deltaX) && this.isNegative(e.deltaY) ? "down" : "up";

    if (direction == "up") {
      this.state.scale += ZOOM_STEP;
    } else {
      this.state.scale -= ZOOM_STEP;
    }

    this.state.scale = this.state.scale < 0 ? 0 : this.state.scale;

    this.setState(this.state);
  },
  render: function () {
    return (
      <div
        onMouseDown={this.handleMouseDown}
        onMouseUp={this.handleMouseUp}
        onWheel={this.handleMouseWheel}
      >
        <Surface width={viewportWidth} height={viewportHeight}>
          <Group
            x={this.state.x}
            y={this.state.y}
            scaleX={this.state.scale}
            scaleY={this.state.scale}
          >
            <Circle x={10} y={10} radius={5} fill="#000" />
          </Group>
        </Surface>
      </div>
    );
  },
});

Now we should be able to zoom in/zoom out while holding shift key + using your scroll wheel. If you want a predictable scale you can add some + and - buttons somewhere and just increment this.state.scale

I'm hoping to do more write ups and examples with react-art. The great thing is that you can render react-art with react-native. With appropriate abstractions you could possibly have the same visualizations on the web as you do on native.

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